You invoked the Web service with these parameters:

URL: Link
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Code: 50387-0
Language: en
Response Type: application/json

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Title: MedlinePlus Connect
Subtitle: MedlinePlus Connect results for LOINC 50387-0
Author: U.S. National Library of Medicine
Author uri: https://www.nlm.nih.gov
Title: Chlamydia Test
Link: https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/chlamydia-test?utm_source=mplusconnect&utm_medium=service
Content:

What is a Chlamydia Test?

Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It is a bacterial infection spread through vaginal, oral, or anal sex with someone who has the infection.

A chlamydia test looks for chlamydia bacteria in a sample of fluid from your body. The sample may be:

  • Urine (pee)
  • Fluid that's usually swabbed from the:
    • Urethra (the tube that carries urine out of your body)
    • Vagina
    • Rectum (the last part of your intestine that connects to the anus).

Chlamydia often has no symptoms, so you may spread the disease without even knowing you have the infection. If a pregnant person has chlamydia, they can give the infection to their baby during childbirth.

The disease is easily treated with antibiotic medicine. But if it's not treated, it can cause serious complications. The infection can spread in the female reproductive system and cause infertility. It can also lead to reactive arthritis (uncommon).

A chlamydia test can diagnose the disease so you can get treatment before you develop lasting health problems or spread the disease to others.

Other names: Chlamydia NAAT or NAT, Chlamydia/GC STD Panel

What is it used for?

A chlamydia test is used to find out whether or not you have a chlamydia infection. The test is also done three months after treatment for chlamydia to check for re-infection.

Why do I need a chlamydia test?

Chlamydia is a very common STD, especially in sexually active people ages 15 to 24. But chlamydia usually doesn't cause symptoms, so the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other health organizations recommend regular screening tests if your risk of getting chlamydia is high.

If you are a woman or a transgender or gender diverse person with a cervix (lower part of the uterus), you should:

  • Get tested for chlamydia at least once a year if you are:
    • Younger than 25 and having sex
    • Age 25 or older and have a higher risk of getting chlamydia because you:
      • Have a new sex partner or more than one partner
      • Have a sex partner who is having sex with others
      • Have a sex partner with an STD
      • Don't use condoms correctly every time
  • Get tested for chlamydia if you are pregnant.

Regular chlamydia testing at least once a year is also recommended if you:

  • Have HIV.
  • Are a man who has sex with men (MSM) or a transgender diverse person with a penis who has sex with men. Test every 3 to 6 months if you or your partner have sex with more than one person, or if you have other sexual behaviors that may increase your risk for getting chlamydia.

The best testing schedule for you may be different than the recommendations. Ask your provider how often you should get tested.

Your provider will order a test if your sex partner has been diagnosed with chlamydia or if you have symptoms. Symptoms of chlamydia may include:

  • An unusual discharge (fluid) from your genitals (penis or vagina) or rectum
  • Irritation or itching around your genitals
  • Pain or burning when you urinate (pee)
  • Rectal pain or bleeding if chlamydia infects the rectum

What happens during a chlamydia test?

To do a chlamydia test, you will need to provide a sample of fluid from the part of your body that may be infected. There are two ways to gather the sample:

  • A first-catch urine sample. You use a sterile cup to a collect urine from the very first part of your urine stream. To get an accurate test result, you will need to stop urinating for two hours before the test.
  • A swab sample. Your provider will use a special swab or brush to gather cells, usually from the genital area (the urethra or the vagina). This may cause some brief discomfort. In certain cases, the rectum, cervix, throat, or eyes may be swabbed. Your provider may give you the option to swab yourself following special instructions.

Test results are usually ready in a day. There are some rapid chlamydia tests that can provide results in 90 minutes or less.

You can also buy at-home collection kits to test for chlamydia and other STDs. With these kits, you collect a swab or urine sample at home and send it to a lab for testing. It's important to follow all the instructions carefully.

You should not use an at-home test if you have symptoms of chlamydia or if your partner has chlamydia. In that case, it's important to talk with your provider right away so you don't delay treatment.

Ask your provider whether at-home chlamydia testing is right for you.

Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?

Preparations for a chlamydia test depend on the type of sample you will be providing. You may need to avoid antibiotic medicines and vaginal douches or creams for 24 hours before your test. Ask your provider if there are any special instructions for your test.

Are there any risks to the test?

There are no known risks to having a chlamydia test.

What do the results mean?

  • A negative test result means that you did not have a chlamydia infection when the sample was collected.
  • A positive test result means you have been infected with chlamydia.

If your test result is positive, you will need antibiotics to treat your infection. Your provider will give you instructions on how to take your medicine. To make sure your infection is cured, follow the instructions carefully and finish all the medicine.

You will also need to let your sexual partner/s know you tested positive for chlamydia so that they can be tested and treated if necessary. Three months after you finish treatment, you will need to be tested for chlamydia again to check for a new infection. That's because repeat infections are very common. Ask your provider to tell you how often to get tested after that.

Learn more about laboratory tests, reference ranges, and understanding results.

Is there anything else I need to know about a chlamydia test?

Chlamydia testing can help you avoid lasting health problems and stop the spread of this disease. You can also take steps to protect yourself from getting chlamydia.

The most reliable way to prevent chlamydia or any STD is to not have vaginal, oral, or anal sex. If you are sexually active, you can reduce your risk of infection by:

  • Having sex with only one partner who has tested negative for STDs and who has sex only with you (mutual monogamy)
  • Using condoms correctly every time you have sex

References

  1. Hinkle J, Cheever K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Chlamydia trachomatis Culture. 152–3 p.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2021 STD Treatment Guidelines: Chlamydial Infections [reviewed; 2021 Jul 22; cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 7 screens]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment-guidelines/chlamydia.htm
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2021 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines: Screening Recommendations and Considerations Referenced in Treatment Guidelines and Original Sources; [reviewed 2021 Sep 15; cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 11 screens]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment-guidelines/screening-recommendations.htm
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Chlamydia-CDC Fact Sheet [reviewed 2022 Mar 7; cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/stdfact-chlamydia.htm
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Chlamydia-CDC Fact Sheet (Detailed) [reviewed 2021 Dec 31; cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/stdfact-chlamydia-detailed.htm
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Protect Yourself + Protect Your Partner: Chlamydia - The Facts [cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/the-facts/chlamydia_bro_508.pdf
  7. Testing.com [Internet]. Seattle (WA): OneCare Media; c2022. Chlamydia Testing; [modified 2021 Nov 9; cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 11 screens]. Available from: https://www.testing.com/tests/chlamydia-test/
  8. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998–2022. Chlamydia trachomatis; [cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chlamydia/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20355355
  9. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998–2022. Urinalysis; [cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 6 screens]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/urinalysis/about/pac-20384907
  10. Merck Manual Consumer Version [Internet]. Kenilworth (NJ): Merck & Co., Inc.; c2022. Urinalysis and Urine Culture; [modified 2020 May; cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/kidney-and-urinary-tract-disorders/diagnosis-of-kidney-and-urinary-tract-disorders/urinalysis-and-urine-culture
  11. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; What are some types of and treatments for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or sexually transmitted infections (STIs)?; [modified 2017 Jan 31; cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/stds/conditioninfo/types#Chlamydia
  12. Testing.com [Internet]. Seattle (WA): OneCare Media; c2022. At-Home Chlamydia Testing; [modified 2021 Nov 9; cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 14 screens]. Available from: https://www.testing.com/tests/at-home-chlamydia-test/
  13. Testing.com [Internet]. Seattle (WA): OneCare Media; c2022. Chlamydia Testing; [modified 2021 Nov 9; cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 11 screens]. Available from: https://www.testing.com/tests/chlamydia-test/
  14. University of Rochester Medical Center [Internet]. Rochester (NY): University of Rochester Medical Center; c2022. Health Encyclopedia: Chlamydia Trachomatis (Swab) [cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=167&contentid=chlamydia_trachomatis_swab
Title: STD Tests
Link: https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/std-tests?utm_source=mplusconnect&utm_medium=service
Content:

What are STD tests?

STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) are infections that are mostly spread through sexual activity, including vaginal, oral, and anal sex. Some infections can be spread through close personal contact, such as kissing, or from a mother to her unborn child.

STDs are caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Millions of Americans are infected with some type of STD every year, with half of diagnoses occurring in teens and young adults between the ages of 15 and 24. Common STDs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, HIV, and HPV (human papillomavirus) infection.

Left untreated, certain STDs can cause devastating and long-term health problems such as blindness, brain damage, infertility, birth defects, and even death. Fortunately, all STDs can be treated, and some can be cured entirely. STD testing can help you get diagnosed and treated so you may avoid serious complications.

Other names: STD screening, STI (sexually transmitted infections) test, STI screening

What are they used for?

STD tests are used to find out if you have been infected with an STD. Testing can help you get the treatment you need and may help prevent the spread of disease.

Why do I need an STD test?

STDs don't always cause symptoms, so it is possible to catch or spread an infection even if you or your partner seem healthy. So, you may need an STD screening test if you are at higher risk for infection. Screening is a type of test done for people who don't have symptoms.

While all sexually active people could potentially get an STD, testing is mostly recommended for people who fall in one or more of the following risk categories:

  • Sexually active women under the age of 25. Experts recommend that women in this age group get a chlamydia test and a gonorrhea test every year. Sexually active women 25 years and older should be tested if they have new or multiple sex partners or have a partner who has been diagnosed with an STD.
  • Women 21 years and older. Women in this age group should get a Pap smear to check for abnormalities in the cervix. These include precancerous changes which can be caused by HPV (human papillomavirus).
  • Pregnant women. Pregnant women are usually tested for HIV, hepatitis B, chlamydia, and syphilis. Pregnant women with certain risk factors may also be tested for gonorrhea and hepatitis C.
  • Sexually active men and women who have unprotected sex and are not in monogamous relationships. A monogamous relationship means having only one sexual partner at a time.
  • People who have sex without a condom should be tested regularly for HIV and other STDs as recommended by their provider.
  • Men who have sex with men. Compared with other groups, men who have sex with men have a higher risk of STDs. Men in this group should be tested at least once a year for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HIV. Men with multiple partners may benefit from more frequent testing.
  • People with HIV. If you have HIV, you are at higher risk of getting another STD. People in this group should be tested for syphilis, gonorrhea, and herpes. A chlamydia test is also usually recommended.
  • People who use injectable drugs. Sharing needles puts you at risk for HIV. Regular HIV testing is recommended for this group.

Some STDs do cause symptoms. Symptoms vary depending on the type of STD, but you may need testing if you have one or more of the following symptoms:

  • Painful urination
  • Pain during sex
  • Unusual odor in vaginal discharge
  • Vaginal itching
  • Discharge and/or itching from the penis
  • Sores or bumps in the genital or rectal area

What happens during an STD test?

Depending on the type of suspected infection, you may get one of the following types of tests:

Blood tests

  • Used to diagnose syphilis, HIV, and sometimes herpes
  • During the test, a health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial

Urine tests

  • Used to diagnose trichomoniasis and sometimes gonorrhea
  • During the test, you will provide a sterile sample of urine in a cup as instructed by your provider

Swab tests

  • Used to diagnose HPV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and herpes
  • During the test, a provider will use a special swab to take a sample from the site of the infection. In women, samples may be taken from the vagina or cervix. In men, samples may be taken from the penis or urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body.

Lumbar puncture, also known as a spinal tap

  • This is not a frequently used STD test, but it may be ordered if your provider thinks you have an advanced stage of syphilis or if a herpes infection has affected your brain or spinal cord.
  • For this test, a provider will inject an anesthetic into your back, so you won't feel any pain during the procedure.
  • Once the area is numb, the provider will insert a thin, hollow needle between two vertebrae in your lower spine. Vertebrae are the small bones that make up your spine. Your provider will then withdraw a small amount of fluid for testing.

You may also be able to check for STDs with an at-home test. Home test kits are available for several STDs, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, and hepatitis C.

  • These tests usually involve using a device (lancet) to prick your finger for a drop of blood, collecting a urine sample, or taking an oral swab. You should discuss your at-home STD test results with your provider to see if you need further testing and/or treatment.

Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?

You don't need any special preparations for a blood test. If you're a woman, you may need to avoid douches and vaginal creams for 24 hours before a urine or swab test.

You may need to empty your bladder before a lumbar puncture.

Your provider will let you know if you need to make any other preparations.

Are there any risks to the test?

There is very little risk to having a blood test. You may have slight pain or bruising at the spot where the needle was put in, but most symptoms go away quickly.

There are no known risks to having urine or swab tests.

If you had a lumbar puncture, you may have pain or tenderness in your back where the needle was inserted. You may also get a headache after the procedure. The headache can last for several hours or up to a week or more.

What do the results mean?

The test result will show whether you have an STD. If you are diagnosed with an STD, there is no need to feel embarrassed or ashamed. STDs affect millions of people.

If you have an STD, be sure to take the medicine as prescribed by your provider. It's also very important that you tell your partner, so they can get tested and treated if necessary.

Is there anything else I need to know about STD tests?

The best way to prevent an STD infection is to not have sex. If you are sexually active, you can reduce your risk of infection by:

  • Being in a long-term relationship with one partner who has tested negative for STDs
  • Using latex condoms correctly every time you have sex. If you or your partner is allergic to latex, you can use polyurethane condoms.

References

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases and Related Conditions; [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/std/general/default.htm
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Which STD Tests Should I Get?; [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/std/prevention/screeningreccs.htm
  3. Cleveland Clinic [Internet]. Cleveland (OH): Cleveland Clinic; c2021. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Infections (STDs and STIs); [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/9138-sexually-transmitted-diseases--infections-stds--stis#diagnosis-and-tests
  4. HIV.gov [Internet]. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Understanding HIV Test Results; [updated 2018 May 14; cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/hiv-testing/learn-about-hiv-testing/understanding-hiv-test-results
  5. Lab Tests Online [Internet]. Seattle (WA): LabTestsOnline.org; c2021. Chlamydia Testing; [updated 2021 May 7; cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://labtestsonline.org/tests/chlamydia-testing
  6. Lab Tests Online [Internet]. Seattle (WA): LabTestsOnline.org; c2021. Herpes Testing; [updated 2021 May 4; cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://labtestsonline.org/tests/herpes-testing
  7. Lab Tests Online [Internet]. Seattle (WA): LabTestsOnline.org; c2021. STD Testing; [updated 2021 May 20; cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://labtestsonline.org/std-testing
  8. Lab Tests Online [Internet]. Seattle (WA): LabTestsOnline.org; c2021. Syphilis Tests; [updated 2021 May 21; cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://labtestsonline.org/tests/syphilis-tests
  9. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998–2021. Chlamydia trachomatis: Diagnosis and treatment; 2020 Feb 20 [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chlamydia/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20355355
  10. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998–2021. Lumbar puncture (spinal tap): Overview; 2020 Aug 14 [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/lumbar-puncture/about/pac-20394631
  11. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998–2021. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): Diagnosis and treatment; 2019 Oct 29 [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sexually-transmitted-diseases-stds/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351246
  12. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998–2021. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): Symptoms and causes; 2019 Oct 29 [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sexually-transmitted-diseases-stds/symptoms-causes/syc-20351240
  13. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998–2021. Urinalysis: Overview; 2019 Oct 23 [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/urinalysis/about/pac-20384907
  14. Merck Manual Consumer Version [Internet]. Kenilworth (NJ): Merck & Co. Inc.; c2021. Overview of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); [updated 2021 Jan; cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/infections/sexually-transmitted-diseases-stds/overview-of-sexually-transmitted-diseases-stds
  15. Merriam-Webster [Internet]. Springfield (MA): Merriam-Webster; c2021 Monogamy; [cited 2021 Jun 19]; Available from: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/monogamy
  16. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Blood Tests; [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/blood-tests
  17. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Diagnosis; [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/std-diagnosis
  18. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Sexually Transmitted Diseases Overview; [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/sexually-transmitted-diseases
  19. UF Health: University of Florida Health [Internet]. Gainesville (FL): University of Florida Health; c2021. Gonorrhea: Overview; [updated 2021 Jun 10; cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://ufhealth.org/gonorrhea
  20. UF Health: University of Florida Health [Internet]. Gainesville (FL): University of Florida Health; c2021. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD): Overview; [updated 2021 Jun 10; cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://ufhealth.org/sexually-transmitted-diseases-std
  21. University of Rochester Medical Center [Internet]. Rochester (NY): University of Rochester Medical Center; c2021. Health Encyclopedia: Hepatitis Panel; [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=167&contentid=hepatitis_panel
  22. University of Rochester Medical Center [Internet]. Rochester (NY): University of Rochester Medical Center; c2021. Health Encyclopedia: Human Papillomavirus (HPV); [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=167&contentid=hpv
  23. Very Well Health [Internet]. New York: About, Inc.; c2021. Best At-Home STD Tests; 2021 May 10 [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.verywellhealth.com/best-at-home-std-tests-4798029
  24. Very Well Health [Internet]. New York: About, Inc.; c2021. How STDs Are Diagnosed; 2020 Feb 8 [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.verywellhealth.com/std-diagnosis-3133242
  25. Very Well Health [Internet]. New York: About, Inc.; c2021. Signs and Symptoms of STDs; 2020 Feb 8 [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.verywellhealth.com/std-symptoms-4014439

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The test is also done three months after treatment for chlamydia to check for re-infection.</p><h2>Why do I need a chlamydia test?</h2>\n<p>Chlamydia is a very common STD, especially in sexually active people ages 15 to 24.  But chlamydia usually doesn't cause symptoms, so the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other health organizations recommend regular screening tests if your risk of getting chlamydia is high.</p>\n<p>If you are a woman or a transgender or gender diverse person with a cervix (lower part of the uterus), you should:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Get tested for chlamydia at least once a year if you are:\n<ul>\n<li>Younger than 25 and having sex</li>\n<li>Age 25 or older and have a higher risk of getting chlamydia because you:\n<ul>\n<li>Have a new sex partner or more than one partner</li>\n<li>Have a sex partner who is having sex with others</li>\n<li>Have a sex partner with an STD</li>\n<li>Don't use condoms correctly every time</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li>Get tested for chlamydia if you are pregnant.</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Regular chlamydia testing at least once a year is also recommended if you:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Have <a data-tid=\"1\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/hivaids.html\">HIV</a>.</li>\n<li>Are a man who has sex with men (MSM) or a transgender diverse person with a penis who has sex with men.  Test every 3 to 6 months if you or your partner have sex with more than one person, or if you have other sexual behaviors that may increase your risk for getting chlamydia.</li>\n</ul>\n<p>The best testing schedule for you may be different than the recommendations. Ask your provider how often you should get tested.</p>\n<p>Your provider will order a test if your sex partner has been diagnosed with chlamydia or if you have symptoms. Symptoms of chlamydia may include:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>An unusual discharge (fluid) from your genitals (penis or vagina) or rectum</li>\n<li>Irritation or itching around your genitals</li>\n<li>Pain or burning when you urinate (pee)</li>\n<li>Rectal pain or bleeding if chlamydia infects the rectum</li>\n</ul><h2>What happens during a chlamydia test?</h2>\n<p>To do a chlamydia test, you will need to provide a sample of fluid from the part of your body that may be infected. There are two ways to gather the sample:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>A first-catch urine sample.</strong> You use a sterile cup to a collect urine from the very first part of your urine stream. To get an accurate test result, you will need to stop urinating for two hours before the test.</li>\n<li><strong>A swab sample.</strong> Your provider will use a special swab or brush to gather cells, usually from the genital area (the urethra or the vagina). This may cause some brief discomfort. In certain cases, the rectum, cervix, throat, or eyes may be swabbed. Your provider may give you the option to swab yourself following special instructions.</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Test results are usually ready in a day. There are some rapid chlamydia tests that can provide results in 90 minutes or less.</p>\n<p>You can also buy <a data-pid=\"31381\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/at-home-medical-tests/\">at-home collection kits</a> to test for chlamydia and other STDs. With these kits, you collect a swab or urine sample at home and send it to a lab for testing. It's important to follow all the instructions carefully.</p>\n<p>You should not use an at-home test if you have symptoms of chlamydia or if your partner has chlamydia. In that case, it's important to talk with your provider right away so you don't delay treatment.</p>\n<p>Ask your provider whether at-home chlamydia testing is right for you.</p><h2>Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?</h2>\n<p>Preparations for a chlamydia test depend on the type of sample you will be providing. You may need to avoid antibiotic medicines and vaginal douches or creams for 24 hours before your test. Ask your provider if there are any special instructions for your test.</p><h2>Are there any risks to the test?</h2>\n<p>There are no known risks to having a chlamydia test.</p><h2>What do the results mean?</h2>\n<ul>\n<li>A negative test result means that you did not have a chlamydia infection when the sample was collected.</li>\n<li>A positive test result means you have been infected with chlamydia.</li>\n</ul>\n<p>If your test result is positive, you will need antibiotics to treat your infection. Your provider will give you instructions on how to take your medicine. To make sure your infection is cured, follow the instructions carefully and finish all the medicine.</p>\n<p>You will also need to let your sexual partner/s know you tested positive for chlamydia so that they can be tested and treated if necessary. Three months after you finish treatment, you will need to be tested for chlamydia again to check for a new infection. That's because repeat infections are very common. Ask your provider to tell you how often to get tested after that.</p>\n<p>Learn more about <a data-pid=\"806\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/how-to-understand-your-lab-results/\">laboratory tests, reference ranges, and understanding results</a>.</p><h2>Is there anything else I need to know about a chlamydia test?</h2>\n<p>Chlamydia testing can help you avoid lasting health problems and stop the spread of this disease. You can also take steps to protect yourself from getting chlamydia.</p>\n<p>The most reliable way to prevent chlamydia or any STD is to not have vaginal, oral, or anal sex. If you are sexually active, you can reduce your risk of infection by:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Having sex with only one partner who has tested negative for STDs and who has sex only with you (mutual monogamy)</li>\n<li>Using condoms correctly every time you have sex</li>\n</ul><h2>References</h2>\n<ol>\n<li>Hinkle J, Cheever K. Brunner &amp; Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams &amp; Wilkins; c2014. Chlamydia trachomatis Culture. 152\u20133 p.</li>\n<li>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2021 STD Treatment Guidelines: Chlamydial Infections [reviewed; 2021 Jul 22; cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 7 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment-guidelines/chlamydia.htm\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment-guidelines/chlamydia.htm</a></li>\n<li>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2021 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines: Screening Recommendations and Considerations Referenced in Treatment Guidelines and Original Sources; [reviewed 2021 Sep 15; cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 11 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment-guidelines/screening-recommendations.htm\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment-guidelines/screening-recommendations.htm</a></li>\n<li>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Chlamydia-CDC Fact Sheet [reviewed 2022 Mar 7; cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/stdfact-chlamydia.htm\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/stdfact-chlamydia.htm</a></li>\n<li>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Chlamydia-CDC Fact Sheet (Detailed) [reviewed 2021 Dec 31; cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/stdfact-chlamydia-detailed.htm\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/stdfact-chlamydia-detailed.htm</a></li>\n<li>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Protect Yourself + Protect Your Partner: Chlamydia - The Facts [cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/the-facts/chlamydia_bro_508.pdf\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/the-facts/chlamydia_bro_508.pdf</a></li>\n<li>Testing.com [Internet]. Seattle (WA): OneCare Media; c2022. Chlamydia Testing; [modified 2021 Nov 9; cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 11 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.testing.com/tests/chlamydia-test/\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.testing.com/tests/chlamydia-test/</a></li>\n<li>Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998\u20132022. Chlamydia trachomatis; [cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chlamydia/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20355355\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chlamydia/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20355355</a></li>\n<li>Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998\u20132022. Urinalysis; [cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 6 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/urinalysis/about/pac-20384907\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/urinalysis/about/pac-20384907</a></li>\n<li>Merck Manual Consumer Version [Internet]. Kenilworth (NJ): Merck &amp; Co., Inc.; c2022. Urinalysis and Urine Culture; [modified 2020 May; cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/kidney-and-urinary-tract-disorders/diagnosis-of-kidney-and-urinary-tract-disorders/urinalysis-and-urine-culture\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/kidney-and-urinary-tract-disorders/diagnosis-of-kidney-and-urinary-tract-disorders/urinalysis-and-urine-culture</a></li>\n<li>Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; What are some types of and treatments for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or sexually transmitted infections (STIs)?; [modified 2017 Jan 31; cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/stds/conditioninfo/types#Chlamydia\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/stds/conditioninfo/types#Chlamydia</a></li>\n<li>Testing.com [Internet]. Seattle (WA): OneCare Media; c2022. At-Home Chlamydia Testing; [modified 2021 Nov 9; cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 14 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.testing.com/tests/at-home-chlamydia-test/\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.testing.com/tests/at-home-chlamydia-test/</a></li>\n<li>Testing.com [Internet]. Seattle (WA): OneCare Media; c2022. Chlamydia Testing; [modified 2021 Nov 9; cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 11 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.testing.com/tests/chlamydia-test/\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.testing.com/tests/chlamydia-test/</a></li>\n<li>University of Rochester Medical Center [Internet]. Rochester (NY): University of Rochester Medical Center; c2022. Health Encyclopedia: Chlamydia Trachomatis (Swab) [cited 2022 Mar 17]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=167&amp;contentid=chlamydia_trachomatis_swab\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=167&amp;contentid=chlamydia_trachomatis_swab</a></li>\n</ol>"
                },
                "updated": {
                    "_value": "2022-11-30T14:09:45Z"
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            {
                "title": {
                    "_value": "STD Tests",
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                    "_value": "<h2>What are STD tests?</h2>\n<p>STDs (<a data-tid=\"400\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/sexuallytransmitteddiseases.html\">sexually transmitted diseases</a>) are infections that are mostly spread through sexual activity, including vaginal, oral, and anal sex. Some infections can be spread through close personal contact, such as kissing, or from a <a data-tid=\"3154\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/infectionsandpregnancy.html\">mother to her unborn child</a>.</p>\n<p>STDs are caused by <a data-tid=\"158\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/bacterialinfections.html\">bacteria</a>, <a data-tid=\"454\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/viralinfections.html\">viruses</a>, or <a data-tid=\"482\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/parasiticdiseases.html\">parasites</a>. Millions of Americans are infected with some type of STD every year, with half of diagnoses occurring in teens and young adults between the ages of 15 and 24. Common STDs include <a data-tid=\"1307\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/chlamydiainfections.html\">chlamydia</a>, <a data-tid=\"3019\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/gonorrhea.html\">gonorrhea</a>, <a data-tid=\"5863\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/genitalherpes.html\">genital herpes</a>, <a data-tid=\"1\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/hivaids.html\">HIV</a>, and <a data-tid=\"1715\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/hpv.html\">HPV</a> (human papillomavirus) infection.</p>\n<p>Left untreated, certain STDs can cause devastating and long-term health problems such as <a data-tid=\"165\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/visionimpairmentandblindness.html\">blindness</a>, brain damage, <a data-tid=\"250\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/infertility.html\">infertility</a>, <a data-tid=\"1127\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/birthdefects.html\">birth defects</a>, and even death. Fortunately, all STDs can be treated, and some can be cured entirely. STD testing can help you get diagnosed and treated so you may avoid serious complications.</p>\n<p>Other names: STD screening, STI (sexually transmitted infections) test, STI screening</p><h2>What are they used for?</h2>\n<p>STD tests are used to find out if you have been infected with an STD. Testing can help you get the treatment you need and may help prevent the spread of disease.</p><h2>Why do I need an STD test?</h2>\n<p>STDs don't always cause symptoms, so it is possible to catch or spread an infection even if you or your partner seem healthy. So, you may need an STD screening test if you are at higher risk for infection. Screening is a type of test done for people who don't have symptoms.</p>\n<p>While all sexually active people could potentially get an STD, testing is mostly recommended for people who fall in one or more of the following risk categories:</p>\n<ul>\n<li><strong>Sexually active women under the age of 25.</strong> Experts recommend that women in this age group get a <a data-pid=\"716\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/chlamydia-test/\">chlamydia test</a> and a <a data-pid=\"886\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/gonorrhea-test/\">gonorrhea test</a> every year. Sexually active women 25 years and older should be tested if they have new or multiple sex partners or have a partner who has been diagnosed with an STD.</li>\n<li><strong>Women 21 years and older.</strong> Women in this age group should get a <a data-pid=\"706\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/pap-smear/\">Pap smear </a>to check for abnormalities in the cervix. These include precancerous changes which can be caused by HPV (human papillomavirus).</li>\n<li><strong>Pregnant women.</strong> Pregnant women are usually tested for <a data-tid=\"1470\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/hivaidsandpregnancy.html\">HIV</a>, <a data-tid=\"1687\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/hepatitisb.html\">hepatitis B</a>, chlamydia, and <a data-tid=\"3017\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/syphilis.html\">syphilis</a>. Pregnant women with certain risk factors may also be tested for gonorrhea and <a data-tid=\"1286\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/hepatitisc.html\">hepatitis C</a>.</li>\n<li><strong>Sexually active men and women who have unprotected sex and are <em>not</em> in monogamous relationships.</strong> A monogamous relationship means having only one sexual partner at a time.</li>\n<li>People who have sex without a condom should be tested regularly for HIV and other STDs as recommended by their provider.</li>\n<li><strong>Men who have sex with men.</strong> Compared with other groups, men who have sex with men have a higher risk of STDs. Men in this group should be tested at least once a year for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HIV. Men with multiple partners may benefit from more frequent testing.</li>\n<li><strong>People with HIV.</strong> If you have HIV, you are at higher risk of getting another STD. People in this group should be <a data-pid=\"828\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/syphilis-tests/\">tested for syphilis</a>, gonorrhea, and <a data-pid=\"892\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/herpes-hsv-test/\">herpes</a>. A chlamydia test is also usually recommended.</li>\n<li><strong>People who use injectable drugs.</strong> Sharing needles puts you at risk for HIV. Regular <a data-pid=\"808\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/hiv-screening-test/\">HIV testing</a> is recommended for this group.</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Some STDs do cause symptoms. Symptoms vary depending on the type of STD, but you may need testing if you have one or more of the following symptoms:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Painful urination</li>\n<li>Pain during sex</li>\n<li>Unusual odor in vaginal discharge</li>\n<li>Vaginal itching</li>\n<li>Discharge and/or itching from the penis</li>\n<li>Sores or bumps in the genital or rectal area</li>\n</ul><h2>What happens during an STD test?</h2>\n<p>Depending on the type of suspected infection, you may get one of the following types of tests:</p>\n<p><strong>Blood tests</strong></p>\n<ul>\n<li>Used to diagnose syphilis, HIV, and sometimes herpes</li>\n<li>During the test, a health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial</li>\n</ul>\n<p><strong>Urine tests</strong></p>\n<ul>\n<li>Used to diagnose <a data-tid=\"4325\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/trichomoniasis.html\">trichomoniasis</a> and sometimes gonorrhea</li>\n<li>During the test, you will provide a sterile sample of urine in a cup as instructed by your provider</li>\n</ul>\n<p><strong>Swab tests</strong></p>\n<ul>\n<li>Used to <a data-pid=\"804\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/human-papillomavirus-hpv-test/\">diagnose HPV</a>, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and herpes</li>\n<li>During the test, a provider will use a special swab to take a sample from the site of the infection. In women, samples may be taken from the vagina or cervix. In men, samples may be taken from the penis or urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body.</li>\n</ul>\n<p><strong>Lumbar puncture, also known as a spinal tap</strong></p>\n<ul>\n<li>This is not a frequently used STD test, but it may be ordered if your provider thinks you have an advanced stage of syphilis or if a herpes infection has affected your brain or spinal cord.</li>\n<li>For this test, a provider will inject an anesthetic into your back, so you won't feel any pain during the procedure.</li>\n<li>Once the area is numb, the provider will insert a thin, hollow needle between two vertebrae in your lower spine. Vertebrae are the small bones that make up your spine. Your provider will then withdraw a small amount of fluid for testing.</li>\n</ul>\n<p><strong>You may also be able to check for STDs with an <a data-pid=\"31381\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/at-home-medical-tests/\">at-home test</a>.</strong> Home test kits are available for several STDs, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, and hepatitis C.</p>\n<ul>\n<li>These tests usually involve using a device (lancet) to prick your finger for a drop of blood, collecting a urine sample, or taking an oral swab. You should discuss your at-home STD test results with your provider to see if you need further testing and/or treatment.</li>\n</ul><h2>Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?</h2>\n<p>You don't need any special preparations for a blood test. If you're a woman, you may need to avoid douches and vaginal creams for 24 hours before a urine or swab test.</p>\n<p>You may need to empty your bladder before a lumbar puncture.</p>\n<p>Your provider will let you know if you need to make any other preparations.</p><h2>Are there any risks to the test?</h2>\n<p>There is very little risk to having a blood test. You may have slight pain or bruising at the spot where the needle was put in, but most symptoms go away quickly.</p>\n<p>There are no known risks to having urine or swab tests.</p>\n<p>If you had a lumbar puncture, you may have pain or tenderness in your back where the needle was inserted. You may also get a headache after the procedure. The headache can last for several hours or up to a week or more.</p><h2>What do the results mean? </h2>\n<p>The test result will show whether you have an STD. If you are diagnosed with an STD, there is no need to feel embarrassed or ashamed. STDs affect millions of people.</p>\n<p>If you have an STD, be sure to take the medicine as prescribed by your provider. It's also very important that you tell your partner, so they can get tested and treated if necessary. </p><h2>Is there anything else I need to know about STD tests?</h2>\n<p>The best way to prevent an STD infection is to not have sex. If you are sexually active, you can reduce your risk of infection by:</p>\n<ul>\n<li>Being in a long-term relationship with one partner who has tested negative for STDs</li>\n<li>Using latex condoms correctly every time you have sex. If you or your partner is <a data-tid=\"1439\" href=\"https://medlineplus.gov/latexallergy.html\">allergic to latex</a>, you can use polyurethane condoms.</li>\n</ul><h2>References</h2>\n<ol>\n<li>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases and Related Conditions; [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/std/general/default.htm\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.cdc.gov/std/general/default.htm</a></li>\n<li>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Which STD Tests Should I Get?; [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/std/prevention/screeningreccs.htm\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.cdc.gov/std/prevention/screeningreccs.htm</a></li>\n<li>Cleveland Clinic [Internet]. Cleveland (OH): Cleveland Clinic; c2021. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Infections (STDs and STIs); [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/9138-sexually-transmitted-diseases--infections-stds--stis#diagnosis-and-tests\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/9138-sexually-transmitted-diseases--infections-stds--stis#diagnosis-and-tests</a></li>\n<li>HIV.gov [Internet]. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Understanding HIV Test Results; [updated 2018 May 14; cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/hiv-testing/learn-about-hiv-testing/understanding-hiv-test-results\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/hiv-testing/learn-about-hiv-testing/understanding-hiv-test-results</a></li>\n<li>Lab Tests Online [Internet]. Seattle (WA): LabTestsOnline.org; c2021. Chlamydia Testing; [updated 2021 May 7; cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://labtestsonline.org/tests/chlamydia-testing\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://labtestsonline.org/tests/chlamydia-testing</a></li>\n<li>Lab Tests Online [Internet]. Seattle (WA): LabTestsOnline.org; c2021. Herpes Testing; [updated 2021 May 4; cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://labtestsonline.org/tests/herpes-testing\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://labtestsonline.org/tests/herpes-testing</a></li>\n<li>Lab Tests Online [Internet]. Seattle (WA): LabTestsOnline.org; c2021. STD Testing; [updated 2021 May 20; cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://labtestsonline.org/std-testing\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://labtestsonline.org/std-testing</a></li>\n<li>Lab Tests Online [Internet]. Seattle (WA): LabTestsOnline.org; c2021. Syphilis Tests; [updated 2021 May 21; cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://labtestsonline.org/tests/syphilis-tests\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://labtestsonline.org/tests/syphilis-tests</a></li>\n<li>Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998\u20132021. Chlamydia trachomatis: Diagnosis and treatment; 2020 Feb 20 [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chlamydia/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20355355\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chlamydia/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20355355</a></li>\n<li>Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998\u20132021. Lumbar puncture (spinal tap): Overview; 2020 Aug 14 [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/lumbar-puncture/about/pac-20394631\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/lumbar-puncture/about/pac-20394631</a></li>\n<li>Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998\u20132021. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): Diagnosis and treatment; 2019 Oct 29 [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: <a href=\"https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sexually-transmitted-diseases-stds/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351246\" target=\"bibliowin\">https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sexually-transmitted-diseases-stds/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351246</a></li>\n<li>Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998\u20132021. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): Symptoms and causes; 2019 Oct 29 [cited 2021 Jun 10]; [about 3 screens]. 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                },
                "updated": {
                    "_value": "2022-11-30T14:09:45Z"
                }
            }
        ]
    }
}