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Code System: 2.16.840.1.113883.6.12
Code: 62270
Language: en
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Title: MedlinePlus Connect
Subtitle: MedlinePlus Connect results for CPT 62270
Author: U.S. National Library of Medicine
Author uri: https://www.nlm.nih.gov
Title: Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis
Link: https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-analysis?utm_source=mplusconnect&utm_medium=service
Content:

What is a Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis?

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless, watery fluid that flows in and around your brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord make up your central nervous system. It controls and coordinates everything you do, including your ability to move, breathe, see think, and more.

Cerebrospinal fluid acts like a cushion that helps protect your brain and spinal cord from sudden impact or injury. The fluid also removes waste products from the brain and helps your central nervous system work properly.

A CSF analysis is a group of tests that use a sample of your cerebrospinal fluid to help diagnose diseases of the brain and spinal cord and other conditions that affect the central nervous system.

Other names: Spinal Fluid Analysis, CSF Analysis

What is it used for?

A CSF analysis is used to measure different substances in your cerebrospinal fluid. It may include tests to diagnose:

Why do I need a CSF analysis?

Your health care provider may order a CSF analysis if you have:

  • Symptoms of an infection or bleeding in the brain or spinal cord
  • Symptoms of an autoimmune disorder, such as multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • Had a brain injury or an injury to your spinal cord
  • Have cancer that may have spread to your central nervous system
  • Symptoms that may be from another central nervous system condition, such as headaches

Symptoms of a brain or spinal cord infection include:

Symptoms of MS often vary and come and go, or they may steadily get worse. They may include:

  • Blurred or double vision
  • Tingling, numbness, or pain in the arms, legs, body, or face
  • Painful muscle spasms
  • Weak muscles, often in the hands and legs
  • Dizziness, balance problems, or clumsy movement when walking
  • Bladder control problems
  • Fatigue
  • Problems thinking or learning new things

What happens during a CSF analysis?

To get a sample of cerebrospinal fluid, a provider will do a procedure called a spinal tap, also known as a lumbar puncture. A spinal tap is usually done in a hospital. During the procedure:

  • You will lie on your side or sit on an exam table.
  • A provider will clean your back and inject an anesthetic into your skin, so you won't feel pain during the procedure. Your provider may put a numbing cream on your back before this injection.
  • When the area on your back is completely numb, your provider will insert a thin, hollow needle between two vertebrae in your lower spine. Vertebrae are the small backbones that make up your spine.
  • Your provider will withdraw a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid for testing. This will take about five minutes.
  • You'll need to stay very still while the fluid is being withdrawn.
  • Your provider may ask you to lie on your back for an hour or two after the procedure. This may prevent you from getting a headache afterward.

Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?

You don't need any special preparations for a CSF analysis, but you may be asked to empty your bladder (pee) and bowels (poop) before the test.

Are there any risks to the test?

There is very little risk to having a spinal tap. You may feel a little pinch or pressure when the needle is inserted. After the test, you may feel some pain or tenderness in your back at the site where the needle was inserted.

You may also have some bleeding at the site or get a headache. The headache may last for several hours or up to a week or more, but your provider may suggest treatment to help relieve the pain.

What do the results mean?

A CSF analysis may include a variety of different tests on your sample. So, the measurements on your test results will depend on which tests were done. Your provider can explain what your results mean.

In general, your CSF analysis results may show that you have an infection, an autoimmune disorder, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), or another disease or injury of the brain or spinal cord. Your provider will likely order more tests to confirm your diagnosis.

Learn more about laboratory tests, reference ranges, and understanding results.

Is there anything else I need to know about a CSF analysis?

Some infections, such as meningitis caused by bacteria, are life-threatening emergencies. If your provider suspects you have bacterial meningitis or another serious infection, you may need to start medicine before you have a final diagnosis.

References

  1. Allina Health [Internet]. Allina Health. Cerebrospinal fluid IgG measurement, quantitative; [cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://account.allinahealth.org/library/content/49/150438
  2. Allina Health [Internet]. Allina Health. CSF albumin/plasma albumin ratio measurement; [cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://account.allinahealth.org/library/content/49/150212
  3. Hinkle J, Cheever K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis; p.144.
  4. Johns Hopkins Medicine [Internet]. Johns Hopkins Medicine; c2022. Health Library: Lumbar Puncture; [cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 7 screens]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/treatment-tests-and-therapies/lumbar-puncture
  5. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998–2022. Lumbar puncture (spinal tap); [cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/lumbar-puncture/about/pac-20394631
  6. Mayo Clinic: Mayo Medical Laboratories [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1995–2022. Test ID: SFIN: Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) IgG Index; [cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.mayocliniclabs.com/test-catalog/overview/2762#Clinical-and-Interpretive
  7. Merck Manual Consumer Version [Internet]. Kenilworth (NJ): Merck & Co. Inc.; c2022. Spinal Cord; [reviewed 2021 Mar; cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders/biology-of-the-nervous-system/spinal-cord
  8. Merck Manual Consumer Version [Internet]. Kenilworth (NJ): Merck & Co. Inc.; c2022. Tests for Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders; [reviewed 2021 Jul; cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders/diagnosis-of-brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders/tests-for-brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders
  9. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Guillain-Barré Syndrome Fact Sheet; [updated 2021 Nov 15; cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 9 screens]. Available from: https://www.ninds.nih.gov/guillain-barre-syndrome-fact-sheet
  10. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Meningitis and Encephalitis Fact Sheet; [updated 2021 Nov 15; cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 10 screens]. Available from: https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/Meningitis-and-Encephalitis-Fact-Sheet
  11. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through Research; [updated 2021 Mar 25; cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 14 screens]. Available from: https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Hope-Through-Research/Multiple-Sclerosis-Hope-Through-Research#3215_3
  12. National Multiple Sclerosis Society [Internet]. National Multiple Sclerosis Society; c1995–2022. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF); [cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.nationalmssociety.org/Symptoms-Diagnosis/Diagnosing-Tools/Cerebrospinal-Fluid-(CSF)
  13. Rammohan KW. Cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis. Ann Indian Acad Neurol [Internet]. 2009 Oct–Dec [cited 2022 Apr 19]; 12(4):246–253. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2824952
  14. Seehusen DA, Reeves MM, Fomin DA. Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis. Am Fam Physician [Internet] 2003 Sep 15 [cited 2022 Apr 19]; 68(6):1103–1109. Available from: https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0915/p1103.html
  15. Testing.com [Internet]. Seattle (WA): OneCare Media; c2022. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Testing; [modified 2021 Nov 9; cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 16 screens]. Available from: https://www.testing.com/tests/cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-testing/
  16. University of Rochester Medical Center [Internet]. Rochester (NY): University of Rochester Medical Center; c2022. Health Encyclopedia: Spinal Tap (Lumbar Puncture) for Children; [cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=90&contentid=P02625

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    <title>Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis</title>
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&lt;h2&gt;What is a Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis?&lt;/h2&gt;
&lt;p&gt;Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless, watery fluid that flows in and around your brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord make up your central nervous system. It controls and coordinates everything you do, including your ability to move, breathe, see think, and more.&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;p&gt;Cerebrospinal fluid acts like a cushion that helps protect your brain and spinal cord from sudden impact or injury. The fluid also removes waste products from the brain and helps your central nervous system work properly.&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;p&gt;A CSF analysis is a group of tests that use a sample of your cerebrospinal fluid to help diagnose diseases of the &lt;a data-tid="174" href="https://medlineplus.gov/braindiseases.html"&gt;brain&lt;/a&gt; and &lt;a data-tid="410" href="https://medlineplus.gov/spinalcorddiseases.html"&gt;spinal cord&lt;/a&gt; and other conditions that affect the central nervous system.&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;p&gt;Other names: Spinal Fluid Analysis, CSF Analysis&lt;/p&gt;&lt;h2&gt;What is it used for?&lt;/h2&gt;
&lt;p&gt;A CSF analysis is used to measure different substances in your cerebrospinal fluid. It may include tests to diagnose:&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;ul&gt;
&lt;li&gt;&lt;strong&gt;&lt;a data-tid="513" href="https://medlineplus.gov/infectiousdiseases.html"&gt;Infectious diseases&lt;/a&gt; of the brain and spinal cord&lt;/strong&gt;, including &lt;a data-tid="324" href="https://medlineplus.gov/meningitis.html"&gt;meningitis&lt;/a&gt; and &lt;a data-tid="241" href="https://medlineplus.gov/encephalitis.html"&gt;encephalitis&lt;/a&gt;. CSF tests for infections look at white blood cells, bacteria, and other substances in the cerebrospinal fluid&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;&lt;strong&gt;&lt;a data-tid="154" href="https://medlineplus.gov/autoimmunediseases.html"&gt;Autoimmune disorders&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/strong&gt;, such as &lt;a data-tid="1234" href="https://medlineplus.gov/guillainbarresyndrome.html"&gt;Guillain-Barr&#233; Syndrome&lt;/a&gt; and &lt;a data-tid="83" href="https://medlineplus.gov/multiplesclerosis.html"&gt;multiple sclerosis&lt;/a&gt; (MS). CSF tests for these disorders look for high levels of certain proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid.&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;&lt;strong&gt;&lt;a data-tid="6039" href="https://medlineplus.gov/bleeding.html"&gt;Bleeding&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/strong&gt; in the brain&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;&lt;strong&gt;&lt;a data-tid="173" href="https://medlineplus.gov/braintumors.html"&gt;Brain tumors&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/strong&gt;, including from cancers in other parts of the body that may spread to the central nervous system&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;&lt;strong&gt;&lt;a data-tid="22" href="https://medlineplus.gov/alzheimersdisease.html"&gt;Alzheimer's disease&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/strong&gt;, the most common form of &lt;a data-tid="205" href="https://medlineplus.gov/dementia.html"&gt;dementia&lt;/a&gt;, which includes memory loss, confusion, and changes in behavior&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;/ul&gt;&lt;h2&gt;Why do I need a CSF analysis?&lt;/h2&gt;
&lt;p&gt;Your health care provider may order a CSF analysis if you have:&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;ul&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Symptoms of an infection or bleeding in the brain or spinal cord&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Symptoms of an autoimmune disorder, such as multiple sclerosis (MS)&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Had a &lt;a data-tid="271" href="https://medlineplus.gov/traumaticbraininjury.html"&gt;brain injury&lt;/a&gt; or an &lt;a data-tid="411" href="https://medlineplus.gov/spinalcordinjuries.html"&gt;injury to your spinal cord&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Have cancer that may have spread to your central nervous system&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Symptoms that may be from another central nervous system condition, such as &lt;a data-tid="273" href="https://medlineplus.gov/headache.html"&gt;headaches&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;/ul&gt;
&lt;p&gt;Symptoms of a brain or spinal cord infection include:&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;ul&gt;
&lt;li&gt;&lt;a data-tid="511" href="https://medlineplus.gov/fever.html"&gt;Fever&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Severe headache&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;&lt;a data-tid="396" href="https://medlineplus.gov/seizures.html"&gt;Seizures&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Stiff neck&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;&lt;a data-tid="489" href="https://medlineplus.gov/nauseaandvomiting.html"&gt;Nausea and vomiting&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Sensitivity to light&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Double vision&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Changes in behavior&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Confusion&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;/ul&gt;
&lt;p&gt;Symptoms of MS often vary and come and go, or they may steadily get worse. They may include:&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;ul&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Blurred or double vision&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Tingling, numbness, or pain in the arms, legs, body, or face&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Painful muscle spasms&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Weak muscles, often in the hands and legs&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;&lt;a data-tid="216" href="https://medlineplus.gov/dizzinessandvertigo.html"&gt;Dizziness&lt;/a&gt;, &lt;a data-tid="5953" href="https://medlineplus.gov/balanceproblems.html"&gt;balance problems&lt;/a&gt;, or clumsy movement when walking&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;&lt;a data-tid="114" href="https://medlineplus.gov/urinaryincontinence.html"&gt;Bladder control problems&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;&lt;a data-tid="5324" href="https://medlineplus.gov/fatigue.html"&gt;Fatigue&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Problems thinking or learning new things&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;/ul&gt;&lt;h2&gt;What happens during a CSF analysis?&lt;/h2&gt;
&lt;p&gt;To get a sample of cerebrospinal fluid, a provider will do a procedure called a spinal tap, also known as a lumbar puncture. A spinal tap is usually done in a hospital. During the procedure:&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;ul&gt;
&lt;li&gt;You will lie on your side or sit on an exam table.&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;A provider will clean your back and inject an anesthetic into your skin, so you won't feel pain during the procedure. Your provider may put a numbing cream on your back before this injection.&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;When the area on your back is completely numb, your provider will insert a thin, hollow needle between two vertebrae in your lower spine. Vertebrae are the small backbones that make up your spine.&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Your provider will withdraw a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid for testing. This will take about five minutes.&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;You'll need to stay very still while the fluid is being withdrawn.&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Your provider may ask you to lie on your back for an hour or two after the procedure. This may prevent you from getting a headache afterward.&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;/ul&gt;&lt;h2&gt;Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?&lt;/h2&gt;
&lt;p&gt;You don't need any special preparations for a CSF analysis, but you may be asked to empty your bladder (pee) and bowels (poop) before the test.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;h2&gt;Are there any risks to the test? &lt;/h2&gt;
&lt;p&gt;There is very little risk to having a spinal tap. You may feel a little pinch or pressure when the needle is inserted. After the test, you may feel some pain or tenderness in your back at the site where the needle was inserted.&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;p&gt;You may also have some bleeding at the site or get a headache. The headache may last for several hours or up to a week or more, but your provider may suggest treatment to help relieve the pain.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;h2&gt;What do the results mean?&lt;/h2&gt;
&lt;p&gt;A CSF analysis may include a variety of different tests on your sample. So, the measurements on your test results will depend on which tests were done. Your provider can explain what your results mean.&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;p&gt;In general, your CSF analysis results may show that you have an infection, an autoimmune disorder, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), or another disease or injury of the brain or spinal cord. Your provider will likely order more tests to confirm your diagnosis.&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;p&gt;Learn more about &lt;a data-pid="806" href="https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/how-to-understand-your-lab-results/"&gt;laboratory tests, reference ranges, and understanding results&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;h2&gt;Is there anything else I need to know about a CSF analysis?&lt;/h2&gt;
&lt;p&gt;Some infections, such as meningitis caused by bacteria, are life-threatening emergencies. If your provider suspects you have bacterial meningitis or another serious infection, you may need to start medicine before you have a final diagnosis.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;h2&gt;References&lt;/h2&gt;
&lt;ol&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Allina Health [Internet]. Allina Health. Cerebrospinal fluid IgG measurement, quantitative; [cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: &lt;a href="https://account.allinahealth.org/library/content/49/150438" target="bibliowin"&gt;https://account.allinahealth.org/library/content/49/150438&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Allina Health [Internet]. Allina Health. CSF albumin/plasma albumin ratio measurement; [cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: &lt;a href="https://account.allinahealth.org/library/content/49/150212" target="bibliowin"&gt;https://account.allinahealth.org/library/content/49/150212&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Hinkle J, Cheever K. Brunner &amp;amp; Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams &amp;amp; Wilkins; c2014. Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis; p.144.&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Johns Hopkins Medicine [Internet]. Johns Hopkins Medicine; c2022. Health Library: Lumbar Puncture; [cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 7 screens]. Available from: &lt;a href="https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/treatment-tests-and-therapies/lumbar-puncture" target="bibliowin"&gt;https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/treatment-tests-and-therapies/lumbar-puncture&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998&#8211;2022. Lumbar puncture (spinal tap); [cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: &lt;a href="https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/lumbar-puncture/about/pac-20394631" target="bibliowin"&gt;https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/lumbar-puncture/about/pac-20394631&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Mayo Clinic: Mayo Medical Laboratories [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1995&#8211;2022. Test ID: SFIN: Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) IgG Index; [cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: &lt;a href="https://www.mayocliniclabs.com/test-catalog/overview/2762#Clinical-and-Interpretive" target="bibliowin"&gt;https://www.mayocliniclabs.com/test-catalog/overview/2762#Clinical-and-Interpretive&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Merck Manual Consumer Version [Internet]. Kenilworth (NJ): Merck &amp;amp; Co. Inc.; c2022. Spinal Cord; [reviewed 2021 Mar; cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: &lt;a href="https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders/biology-of-the-nervous-system/spinal-cord" target="bibliowin"&gt;https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders/biology-of-the-nervous-system/spinal-cord&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Merck Manual Consumer Version [Internet]. Kenilworth (NJ): Merck &amp;amp; Co. Inc.; c2022. Tests for Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders; [reviewed 2021 Jul; cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: &lt;a href="https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders/diagnosis-of-brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders/tests-for-brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders" target="bibliowin"&gt;https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders/diagnosis-of-brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders/tests-for-brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Guillain-Barr&#233; Syndrome Fact Sheet; [updated 2021 Nov 15; cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 9 screens]. Available from: &lt;a href="https://www.ninds.nih.gov/guillain-barre-syndrome-fact-sheet" target="bibliowin"&gt;https://www.ninds.nih.gov/guillain-barre-syndrome-fact-sheet&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Meningitis and Encephalitis Fact Sheet; [updated 2021 Nov 15; cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 10 screens]. Available from: &lt;a href="https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/Meningitis-and-Encephalitis-Fact-Sheet" target="bibliowin"&gt;https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/Meningitis-and-Encephalitis-Fact-Sheet&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through Research; [updated 2021 Mar 25; cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 14 screens]. Available from: &lt;a href="https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Hope-Through-Research/Multiple-Sclerosis-Hope-Through-Research#3215_3" target="bibliowin"&gt;https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Hope-Through-Research/Multiple-Sclerosis-Hope-Through-Research#3215_3&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;National Multiple Sclerosis Society [Internet]. National Multiple Sclerosis Society; c1995&#8211;2022. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF); [cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: &lt;a href="https://www.nationalmssociety.org/Symptoms-Diagnosis/Diagnosing-Tools/Cerebrospinal-Fluid-(CSF)" target="bibliowin"&gt;https://www.nationalmssociety.org/Symptoms-Diagnosis/Diagnosing-Tools/Cerebrospinal-Fluid-(CSF)&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Rammohan KW. Cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis. Ann Indian Acad Neurol [Internet]. 2009 Oct&#8211;Dec [cited 2022 Apr 19]; 12(4):246&#8211;253. Available from: &lt;a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2824952" target="bibliowin"&gt;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2824952&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Seehusen DA, Reeves MM, Fomin DA. Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis. Am Fam Physician [Internet] 2003 Sep 15 [cited 2022 Apr 19]; 68(6):1103&#8211;1109. Available from: &lt;a href="https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0915/p1103.html" target="bibliowin"&gt;https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0915/p1103.html&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;Testing.com [Internet]. Seattle (WA): OneCare Media; c2022. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Testing; [modified 2021 Nov 9; cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 16 screens]. Available from: &lt;a href="https://www.testing.com/tests/cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-testing/" target="bibliowin"&gt;https://www.testing.com/tests/cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-testing/&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;li&gt;University of Rochester Medical Center [Internet]. Rochester (NY): University of Rochester Medical Center; c2022. Health Encyclopedia: Spinal Tap (Lumbar Puncture) for Children; [cited 2022 Apr 19]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: &lt;a href="https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=90&amp;amp;contentid=P02625" target="bibliowin"&gt;https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=90&amp;amp;contentid=P02625&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;/ol&gt;

</summary>
    <updated>2022-11-30T13:19:54Z</updated>
  </entry>
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